Ingredient Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Animal digest
:
Material which results from chemical and/or enzymatic hydrolysis of clean and undecomposed animal tissue. Used as flavoring for pet food
Animal liver flavor
:
A blend of flavor enhancers comprised primarily ofanimal liver which has been hydrolyzed. Used as a palatability enhancer and source of protein
Ascorbic acid
:
A source of Vitamin C; a biological antioxidant
 
Beef
:
The flesh of cattle; a source of protein and flavor
Beta-carotene
:
Member of the carotenoid family; from plants such as carrots and pumpkins. A source of Vitamin A for dogs (cats cannot convert carotenoids to Vitamin A); for healthy vision
Biotin
:
A coenzyme in the synthesis of fatty acids,and select amino acids; isoleucine, and valine, It also plays a role in gluconeogenesis
Brewer’s rice
:
Small milled fragments of rice kernels that have been separated from the larger kernels
Brewer’s dried yeast
:
The dried, non-fermentative yeast of the botanical classification Saccharomyces which has been separated from the medium in which propagated. A source of protein, adds flavor to the diet
By-products
:
Secondary products produced in addition to the principal product. Poultry by-products consist of non-rendered clean parts of carcasses of poultry and may include heads, feet, and viscera, but may not include feathers or feces. Meat by-products may include organs, blood and bone, but may not include hair, horns, hooves, teeth or feces.
 
Calcium carbonate
:
A natural source of calcium; nourishes teeth and bones
Calcium gluconate
:
The calcium salt of gluconic acid generally expressed as Ca(C6H1107)2. A source of calcium, for strong bones and teeth.
Calcium iodate
:
Calcium salt of iodic acid generally expressed as Ca(IO3)2. A source of calcium, for strong bones and teeth, and iodine, for proper thyroid function.
Calcium pantothenate
:
Crystalline calcium pantothenate; Vitamin B-5; Co-enzyme A involved in many metabolic processes of the body.
Calcium phosphate
:
A source of calcium and phosphorus; both important for strong bones and teeth
Calcium sulfate
:
The calcium salt of sulfuric acid generally expressed as CaSO4. A source of calcium, for strong bones and teeth.
Canola oil
:
Oil processed from rapeseeds or field mustard. An unsaturated fatty acid; provides energy.
Canola meal
:
A protein obtained after oil is pressed from rapeseed or field mustard. Excellent amino acid profile, rich in vitamins and essential minerals.
Carrageenan
:
Carrageenan comes from select species of seaweed is used to thicken or modify the texture of foods.
Caramel color
:
Produced by non-enzymatic browning of sugar. Adds color to the diet
Chicken
:
The clean flesh and skin, with or without bone, derived from the parts of whole carcasses of poultry. A source of protein and flavor
Chicken meal
:
The dry, rendered product from a combination of clean flesh and skin with or without accompanying bone. It does not contain feathers, heads, feet and entrails. A natural source of glucosamine.
Choline chloride
:
A source of choline; a component of healthy cell membranes and supports neurotransmission
Citric Acid
:
Expressed as C6H8O7, principally derived by fermentation of carbohydrates or from lemon, lime, and pineapple juices; used in flavoring and preservation
Coconut oil
:
An oil extracted from the kernel of mature coconuts. Provides medium-chain triglyceride in the diet; a highly digestible source of energy
Colostrum
:
A milk-derived protein; has significant immune and GI health benefits in young and adult dogs and cats
Copper proteinate
:
Copper that is chelated with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein to improve the bioavailability. A source of copper; aids in hemoglobin synthesis, skeletal production
Copper sulfate
:
Copper salt of sulfuric acid generally expressed as CuSO4. A source of copper, aids in hemoglobin synthesis, skeletal production
Corn gluten meal
:
Dried protein product from corn after the removal of the starch and germ via a wet milling process or by enzymatic treatment of the endosperm. A highly digestible source of protein and antioxidants
Corn, ground
:
The entire corn kernel ground or chopped. a source of energy and fiber
Corn oil
:
Oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize). A source of unsaturated omega-6 fatty acids; aids in hair and skin health
Corn Starch
:
A granular material comprised of starch obtained from corn; used as a thickening agent. A carbohydrate source that contains extremely low amounts of protein.
 
Dicalcium phosphate
:
A source of calcium and phosphorus; both important for strong bones and teeth
DL-methionine
:
An essential amino acid. Sometimes given as a supplement to dogs to reduce urine pH.
Dried beet pulp
:
Dried residue from sugar beets which has been extracted in the process of manufacturing sugar. Contains a blend of soluble and insoluble fiber.
Dried egg product
:
Dehydrated whole egg, free of shells. A highly digestible protein source
Dried whey
:
Product obtained by removing water from whey (the liquid portion that remains after whole cow’s milk is fermented into cheese) Contains not less than 11% protein nor less than 61% lactose. A highly valued protein source
Dried yeast
:
Dried non-fermentative yeast of the botanical classification Saccharomyces, which has been separated from the medium in which propagated. A flavor enhancer and source of protein
 
Enterococcus faecium
:
A bacterium found in the gut of many animals including dogs and humans. Used as a probiotic, can be helpful in the dietary management of stress diarrhea, and other GI conditions.
 
Ferrous sulfate
:
Iron salt of sulfuric acid; generally expressed as FeSO4. Iron is a component of hemoglobin, which acts in oxygen transport
Fish meal
:
The clean, dried, ground tissue of undecomposed whole fish or fish cuttings, with or without the extraction of part of the oil. A source of protein that is rich in Omega-3 fatty acids which reduce inflammation in the skin and joints.
Fish oil
:
Oil obtained from rendering whole fish or cannery waste; a source of unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids; good for skin, hair, joints and cognitive function
Folic acid
:
Crystalline folic acid; coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides (DNA)
 
Garlic oil
:
A palatability enhancer
Glycerin
:
Used as a softening agent to make the texture of dry kibble soft or chewy
Ground wheat
:
A source carbohydrate and protein
Guar gum
:
The ground endosperm of guar beans; used as a thickening agent.
 
Hydrolyzed chicken/ chicken liver
:
Chicken or chicken liver that has been enzymatically digested to produce smaller peptides; used in hypoallergenic diets as a low molecular weight protein source.
Hydrolyzed soy protein isolate
:
Soy that has been enzymatically digested to produce smaller peptides; Used in hypoallergenic diets as a low molecular weight protein source.
 
 
 
 
Lecithin
:
A mixture of phospholipids usually from soybean oil; functionally used as an emulsufyer
Liver
:
A source of protein, vitamins and minerals. Commonly from beef, pork, or poultry.
Locust bean gum
:
A vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the carob tree. Used as a thickening agent.
L-Lysine monohydrochloride
:
A source of lysine, an essential amino acid which aids in protein synthesis
 
Manganese sulfate
:
Manganese salt of sulfuric acid; generally expressed as MnSO4. A source of manganese, important in bone development and joint health
Magnesium
:
Magnesium is a cation within the body's cells, active in many enzyme systems. Magnesium is very important for cell energy production, helps transport sodium and potassium across cell membranes,. It also helps transmit electrical impulses across nerves and muscles, and aids bone growth
Manganese
:
Manganese is a micromineral and functions as a component of several cell enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions. Manganese is necessary for normal bone development, joint health and reproduction
Meat By-Products
:
the non-rendered, clean parts, other than meat, derived from slaughtered (cattle, sheep, pigs, goats) mammals. It includes lungs, spleen, kidneys, brain, livers, blood, bone. It does not include hair, horns, teeth, and hoofs.
Meat Meal
:
Meat meal is the rendered product from mammal tissues(cattle, sheep, pigs, goats), exclusive of any added blood, hair, hoof, horn hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents except in such amounts as may occur unavoidably in good processing practices.
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex
:
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex (Vitamin K3)
Methionine
:
Methionine is an amino acid. Methionine is a principle supplier of sulfur which is required for formation of many other compounds in the body.
Mixed Tocopherols
:
Tocopherols are a mixture of vitamin E isomers that function as physical antioxidents for natural preservation of food.
 
Niacin Supplement
:
Niacin (Vitamin B3) is an essential water soluble vitamin. Niacin functions in over 50 body processes and is primarily important in the release of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat
 
Oatmeal
:
Coarsely ground unsifted oats, a whole grain. It is harvested from the seed bearing fruit of the oat plant (Avena sativa). Oatmeal is a beneficial source of fiber, B vitamins, and beta-glucans. Oats are gluten-free.
Oat Fiber
:
Concentrated source of dietary fiber. Higher in fiber than oat bran. Oat fiber supports healthy digestion.
Omega 3
:
Omega 3 fatty acids are a family of highly unsaturated fatty acids found in fat sources such as fish oil and flaxseed. Flaxseed is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA,18: 3n-3), while fish oils are a good source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20: 5n-3) and docoahexaenoic (DHA, 22: 6n-3)
Omega 6
:
Omega 6 fatty acids are a family of fatty acids found in fat sources such as chicken fat and vegetable oils. Linoleic acid (18: 2n-6) is an essential fatty acid for dogs and cats that is important for maintaining a healthy skin and coat.
 
Pea Fiber
:
Pea fiber is derived from cleaned and processed pea hulls. Pea fiber is a good source of both insoluble and soluble fiber that helps support normal intestinal health.
Pearled Barley
:
Pearled barley is barley that has been dehulled by machine brushing. Pearled barley has the bran removed but leaves the endosperm and germ intact, thereby contributing additional protein, barley oil and vitamins and minerals to the diet.
Phenylalanine
:
An essential amino acid present in the mixture obtained upon hydrolysis of common proteins. It is converted to tyrosine in the body. Tyrosine is an amino acid that is used to manufacture adrenal and thyroid hormones, and is converted into the skin pigment, melanin.
Phosphorus
:
Phosphorus is a major mineral found mostly in bones and teeth. Phosphorus is part of every cell. It is important in genetic material, is a part of phospholipids and is used in energy transfer and in buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance. It is also used to enhance palatability.
Phosphoric Acid
:
Generally expressed as H3PO4; added to adjust the pH of the product and as a pal enhancer.
Potassium Carbonate
:
A source of potassium, which is a mineral that is essential for the correct functioning of cells in the body. It is responsible for maintaining the acid base balance in the body.
Potassium Chloride
:
A source of potassium, which is a mineral that is essential for the correct functioning of cells in the body. It is responsible for maintaining the acid base balance in the body.
Potassium Iodide
:
A source of potassium and iodine. Potassium is a mineral that is essential for the correct functioning of cells in the body. Potassium is responsible for maintaining the acid base balance in the body. Iodine is a component of thyroid hormone which is important for growth, development and the regulation of metabolic rate.
Potassium Sorbate
:
Potassium sorbate is used as a mold inhibitor in moist treats.
Poultry by-products
:
Consists of the non-rendered, clean parts of carcasses of slaughtered poultry, such as necks, feet, viscera. It provides essential amino acids, fat, vitamins and minerals as well as palatability to the food. It excludes feces and feathers.
Powdered Cellulose
:
Powdered cellulose is a natural source of insoluble fiber that supports healthy digestion. Purified, mechanically disintegrated cellulose is obtained as a pulp from fibrous plant materials.
Propylene Glycol
:
Propylene glycol is added to maintain the moistness of semi-moist treats.
Pyridoxine Hydrochloride
:
A source of Pyridoxine, also known as Vitamin B6, a B vitamin that has many roles in metabolism.
 
 
Riboflavin Supplement
:
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) is a water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin B2 is essential for the normal release of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat in food. It is important for normal growth and development, the production of and regulation of certain hormones, and eye pigment formation.
Rice
:
An easily digestible, nutrient-rich grain. A source of energy
Rice Bran
:
The combination of the bran layer and germ of rice. Rice bran provides many different nutrients including dietary fiber for digestive health and antioxidants to support the immune system.
Rice Flour
:
Finely ground meal from the milling of rice, which consists primarily of the starch and gluten fractions. Rice flour provides an excellent source of highly digestible carbohydrate for quick energy.
 
Salmon
:
Salmon is a marine and freshwater fish high in protein and long chain omega-3 fatty acids.
Salmon Meal
:
Salmon meal is made from salmon that's cooked to remove the water and fat - leaving a dry, highly concentrated source of protein and natural antioxidants. It is also a great source of long chained Omega 3 fatty acids like DHA and EPA which are important for cognitive function and joint health.
Selenium
:
An essential trace mineral. It is part of a major antioxidant enzyme that protects cell membranes and prevents free radical generation. Selenium also helps preserve tissue elasticity. Selenium works closely with the antioxidant vitamin E.
Sodium
:
Sodium is the principal positively charged ion in the extracellular fluids of the body. It is an electrolyte that is critical to the maintenance of fluid balance, nerve transmissions and muscle contractions.
Sodium Ascorbate
:
Sodium ascorbate is a non-acidic form of vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that passes out of the body every day. Sodium ascorbate has a neutral pH, making it safer for sensitive stomachs.
Sodium Phosphate
:
Phosphorus is a naturally occurring substance that is important in every cell in the body. The majority of phosphorus in the body is found in the bones. The potassium and sodium salt forms of phosphorus are called phosphates.
Sodium Selenite
:
Sodium selenite is an essential trace mineral source of selenium and is part of a major antioxidant enzyme that protects cell membranes and prevents free radical generation.
Sorbic Acid
:
A white crystalline carboxylic acid used as a preservative.
Soy Protein Concentrate
:
Soy protein concentrate is a concentrated protein source made from soy. Protein is an essential nutrient that helps promote strong muscles, aids in tissue repair, provides energy and helps support a healthy immune system.
Soybean Oil
:
Oil that is pressed from soybeans. Soybean oil provides a source of both omega 6 and 3 fatty acids to support many health systems including skin and coat, joint and cognitive.
Soybean Hulls
:
Soybean hulls are the outer covering of the soybean. They serve as a source of both insoluble and soluble fiber to aid in digestion, gut motility, and satiation.
Soybean Meal
:
Soybean meal is ground soybeans that have been processed to remove much of the oil, then dehydrated into a powder form. It serves as a source of protein, carbohydrate, essential amino acids and minerals.
Starch
:
Starch is a natural carbohydrate source of energy from the starch of grains and vegetables.
 
Taurine
:
Taurine is an essential amino acid for cats (and some breeds of dogs), which means that these pets cannot synthesize taurine on their own; they lack the proper liver enzymes. Without sufficient levels, pets may develop eye and heart issues.
Thiamine Mononitrate
:
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) is a water-soluble vitamin also known as thiamin. Thiamine Mononitrate (Vitamin B1) is required for normal functioning of all body cells, especially nerves and peristaltic movement in the GI tract. Vitamin B1 is involved in numerous body processes that break convert food into energy and maintains heart muscle.
Trout
:
Trout is a fresh water fish used as a source of protein that is rich in Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega 3's are beneficial for the nutritional management of dogs with inflammation in the skin and joints.
Turkey
:
Turkey is the clean combination of flesh and skin with or without accompanying bone, derived from the parts or whole carcasses of turkey or a combination of thereof - exclusive of feathers, heads, feet, and entrails.
 
 
Vitamin A Acetate
:
A source of vitamin A. Vitamin A is a family of compounds that may also be referred to as retinol, retinal, retinyl, or retinoic acid. Vitamin A also helps develop and maintain the cornea in the eye, all mucous membranes, the digestive tract, the urinary tract, the reproductive tract, the skin and the lungs. It is important for normal body growth and the formation of bones and soft tissue. This vitamin also helps support the immune system.
Vitamin B12 Supplement
:
A source of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin or cyanocobalamin) is the largest, most complex, and most potent water-soluble compound essential to animals and microorganisms. It is necessary for food metabolism, DNA formation, and the prevention of anemia.
Vitamin D3 Supplement
:
A source of vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble vitamin also known as cholecalciferol. It is the major active substance in Vitamin D and can only be obtained from non-vegan sources - D2 is the plant form and is not as efficiently used by the body. Its main function is to stimulate the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. This important vitamin aids in the formation of normal bones and teeth. It also aids in the maintenance of a healthy nerve and muscle system by regulating the level of calcium in the blood.
Vitamin E Supplement
:
A source of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble isomer of alpha tocopherol, the most biologically active form. They are potent antioxidants in the body and help protect fat and Vitamin A from destruction by charged oxygen called free radicals. It functions to stabilize cell membranes and protect them from damage by air pollutants, particularly the cells in the tissues of the lungs and mouth. Vitamin E is known to help reproductive development and hormone production.
 
Whey Protein
:
Whey protein is the liquid portion that remains after whole cow's milk is fermented into cheese (curds and whey). This nutritious source of protein is considered to have an ideal amino acid content & balance, making it a highly valued protein source.
Wheat Flour
:
Finely ground meal from the milling of wheat. Consists primarily of the starch and gluten fractions. These provide an excellent source of highly digestible carbohydrate for quick energy.
Wheat Gluten
:
Wheat gluten is a protein source that is made from removing most of the starch from the grain. It is also highly functional and provides structure to chunk and gravy products.
 
Xanthan Gum
:
A thickening agent
 
 
Zinc proteinate
:
Zinc proteinate is an essestial mineral and the chelated source of zinc. Zinc is needed for the mineralization of bone and digestion of protein. Zinc also functions in the production of amino acids, the proper functioning of insulin, normal taste, and the maintenance of normal blood levels of vitamin A. Zinc plays a major role in the maintenance of the immune system.